DICHROIC DYES: developments and applications
The term "dichroic" may be interpreted from Grecian as "two-colored" and in respect to the dyes sounds at least contradictory. Indeed how a dye can be simulteneously black and white or pink and yellow ?
Historically the phenomena of "dichroism" (two-coloring) was discovered on natural transparent gems (Alexandrite, for example), which appeared two colored from different points (angles) of view. It was described the observation of even three colors (pleochroism) on some synthetic crystals possessing with lower degree of symmetry.
The general cause of dichroism is anisotropy (non-uniformity) of the media containing the coloring sources - some atoms (ions) or molecules.
Liquid crystals (LC) is a fruitfull media for some sort of dyes to show their dichroism.
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